Increased blood pressure - arterial hypertension (hypertension) - is found in 25% of the adult population and is one of the diseases that reduce life expectancy and lead to disability. It is important to know that in the initial stages of arterial hypertension may not manifest itself in any way and does not affect your health. But high blood pressure triggers a cascade of pathological changes in the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, retina, and brain, which leads to headaches, impaired vision, memory, sleep, mental decline, heart attack, and stroke. Modern scientific research has proven that these pathological changes can be prevented. Be attentive to yourself. If your blood pressure (BP) exceeds 140/90 mm Hg - listen to your doctor's advice, and reconsider your life position. It is very important to control your blood pressure level. Increased blood pressure can only be determined by measuring it. Do not make a conclusion about the level of blood pressure, focusing only on your well-being. Be sure to buy a tonometer, it is your constant assistant. Choose semi-automatic or automatic models with an upper arm cuff, and follow the rules for measuring pressure. Your blood pressure should not exceed the level of 140/90 mm Hg.
Start a blood pressure self-monitoring diary and record the measurement results (p.3). The blood pressure should be measured 2 times: in the morning on an empty stomach before taking medications and in the evening before going to bed, based on the results of the measurement, calculate the arithmetic mean as the sum of the morning and evening measurements divided by 2. In the notes, you can indicate your well-being, complaints, and medication intake. Medications for the treatment of hypertension should be taken continuously. If you have been prescribed medications for the treatment of hypertension, do not cancel them yourself without consulting your doctor. Sudden discontinuation of treatment may have negative consequences for health and well-being.
Do not prescribe treatment yourself after hearing TV commercials or on the advice of relatives and friends who do not have appropriate education and experience in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Food supplements, magnetic bracelets, and various disks are not a substitute for treatment. Avoiding the development of heart attack and stroke is possible only with the help of pharmacological drugs, the effectiveness of which is scientifically proven.
Following the doctor's advice on lifestyle changes: limiting the consumption of certain foods, adherence to physical activity, maintaining optimal body weight, quitting tobacco smoking, and taking pharmacological drugs is the only way to avoid the development of such serious complications as stroke and myocardial infarction.
Tobacco smoking is an absolutely proven risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Under the influence of nicotine, the pulse accelerates, vasospasm occurs and blood pressure rises. Coronary heart disease is 4 times more likely to occur in smokers compared to non-smokers. Talk to your doctor about the easiest way to overcome this habit. This is a very important decision in your life!
Impaired cholesterol and lipid metabolism are major factors in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, which leads to heart attack and stroke. Determine your blood cholesterol level. Total cholesterol should not exceed 5.0 mmol/l. If your doctor prescribed you statins - drugs that lower cholesterol, you must follow his recommendations. Taking statins meets the requirements of international standards for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and hypertension.
Diabetes mellitus significantly accelerates the development of cardiovascular diseases. If you suffer from diabetes mellitus, the optimal level of blood pressure for you will be 130/80 mm Hg and below, and the level of total cholesterol - is less than 4.5 mmol / l. It is necessary to regularly monitor blood glucose levels and follow the recommendations on diet, exercise, and maintaining optimal body weight. Lifestyle changes help many patients with diabetes maintain optimal blood glucose levels without additional medication.
Watch your body weight - calculate your body mass index: weight (in kg) divided by height (in m) squared. Norm < 25. If the BMI exceeds 25, analyze your diet and physical activity, consult a doctor and make changes in your life. Pay attention to your waist size. If it exceeds 88 cm in women and 102 cm in men, it indicates abdominal obesity, which is often accompanied by the progression of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. If you set a goal to lose weight, remember that body weight should be reduced gradually. It is better to lose 5 kg in a year than in a month.
Physical activity helps to reduce blood pressure, normalize body weight, trains the cardiovascular system and muscles, reduce stress and psycho-emotional stress, and improve your sleep and well-being. The goal to strive for is 30-45 minutes of walking daily or at least 5 times a week. Be sure to consult your doctor about the permissible level of load. Isometric loads with weights (kettlebells, barbells, simulators) increase blood pressure and should be excluded. Do not do yourself harm!
Try to follow a sufficient calorie and balanced diet every day. The optimal caloric content of your daily diet is reflected in a stable normal body mass index. If you have extra pounds, your caloric intake should be reduced. Consult your doctor about your daily caloric intake and how to control it.
It is necessary to reduce the number of animal fats, trans fats, sugar, sweets, and foods containing a lot of cholesterol in the diet. Below are "Dietary recommendations for the right choice of food", which will help you determine your diet.
Do not add salt to ready meals. Excess salt is contained in smoked products, meat, fish semi-finished products, canned food, etc. Reducing salt in the diet reduces systolic blood pressure by 4-6 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 2-3 mm Hg.
Normalize your diet: eat more often but in smaller portions, a full breakfast and lunch are recommended, and after 18.00 it is advisable to reduce food intake and give preference to low-calorie foods.
It is important to know that excessive alcohol consumption contributes to high blood pressure. Allowable doses for practically healthy men - no more than 20 ml per day in terms of ethanol (for women - half as much).
Psycho-emotional overloads have a negative impact on health. Observe the regime of work and rest, and take care of proper sleep. Do not create stressful situations, and do not allow aggressive behavior, irritability, or negative emotions - this primarily harms your health. Be friendly, learn to control your emotions, and smile more often. Communication with nature, pets, and hobbies will help you maintain psychological balance. If you have a depressed mood or sleep disorders - consult a doctor.
Changing your lifestyle will require constant daily efforts from you. Your habits have been formed over many years, you will not be able to get rid of them immediately. Set realistic goals, and go to them step by step, if something does not work - do not give up, go on. Success in the treatment of hypertension and prevention of its complications depends only on you and your attitude to your own health.
The daily set of products should be varied and contain a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables (the WHO recommended norm is at least 400 g per day) and whole grain products. You should consume low-fat dairy products every day. Try to consume oily sea fish at least 3-4 times a week.
|Food categories||Recommended products and dishes||Desirable amount||Products of limited choice||Foods and dishes that should be avoided|
|Fats||Oils: olive, sunflower, corn, linseed||
Up to 1-2 tablespoons in total per day
|Butter no more than 20 g per day||spreads Animal fats (lard, beef, lamb fats, solid margarine) partially hydrogenated vegetable fats (trans fats)|
Lean beef, abbit, turkey, chicken without visible fat and skin in boiled
|form 1 portion per day, sometimes 2 portions per day||Young lamb, veal, lean pork, lean ham, dishes with meat filling, boiled sausages,||Fatty meat and poultry, pates, smoked and raw smoked sausages, fried, smoked, marinated meat products|
|Eggs in dishes, protein omelets||
2-3 eggs per week
|Eggs in boiled form||Fried, scrambled eggs|
|Fish and fish products||All kinds of fish, including oily sea fish, steamed, boiled||1 portion (100g) per day||
Baked fish without skin, baked, mussels, lobsters, shrimps, squid
|Fried fish, smoked, salted fish, herring, caviar|
|Dairy products||Milk and dairy products up to 1% fat, yogurts with natural fillers, low-fat sour cream in dishes, cottage cheese up to 5% fat||Sour-milk drinks - 1-2 servings per day, cottage cheese 70-100g per day||Low-fat varieties of hard cheese, cottage cheese desserts, ryazhenka 2.5% fat||Fatty sour cream, glazed cheese, fatty salty hard cheese, condensed milk, cream, fatty dairy products|
|Fruits, berries||Fresh berries and fruits, juices in season, dried, frozen fruits and berries, juices without added sugar||At least 3 servings per day||Sweet apple varieties, juices without added sugar||Fruits in syrup, canned and pickled fruits, jams, preserves|
|Vegetables||Vegetables in season in fresh, boiled, steamed form, potatoes with peel, legumes, frozen vegetables, herbs||At least 3 servings per day||Canned vegetables without vinegar; vegetables and potatoes fried in oil, soaked sauerkraut||Pickles, pickled vegetables, potatoes and vegetables fried in animal fat, potato chips, French fries|
|Cereals||Bread made of rye flour and wheat flour of the second grade, whole grain cereals (oatmeal, buckwheat, millet), unpolished rice, pasta (durum wheat, buckwheat), lean bakery products, biscuits||Up to 5 slices of bread per day and 1-2 servings of cereals (3 full tablespoons) per day||Pasta made from high-grade flour, sweet cereals, shortbread and biscuit cakes, and bakery products cooked with recommended fats||Bakery products made of first-grade flour, fried pies, confectionery products with the addition of vegetable fats, industrial crackers|
|Soups||Vegetarian vegetable and cereal soups||1 portion per day||Soups on low-fat broth, fish soups from low-fat fish||Soups on bone and meat broths, puree soups|
|Drinks||Tea without sugar, weak coffee without caffeine, mineral non-carbonated water||Within the total amount of fluids per day||Alcoholic drinks per 20 g of alcohol, sweet and carbonated drinks||Strong coffee, tea, coffee with cream, cocoa|
|Desserts||Fruit salads, unsweetened fruit ice cream, frozen juices||1-2 servings per day in season||Honey||Creamy ice cream, desserts with added sugar and cream|
|Confectionery products||Lukum, nougat, caramel candies, dark chocolate||Up to 30g per day||Marmalade, pastille, halva||Iris, confectionery products with the addition of butter and vegetable fats, milk chocolate|
|Nuts||Walnuts, almonds, chestnuts, walnuts, cashews, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts||1-2 whole nuts per day||Pistachios, peanuts||Salted nuts|
|Seasonings||Spicy herbs||In dishes in season||Mustard, pepper, soy sauce, and low-fat sauces on recommended fats||Sauces on broths, mayonnaise|
Source: Annex No. 3 to the unified clinical protocol of primary, emergency and secondary (specialized) medical care "Arterial hypertension"